Streamside Revegetation Manual

Why revegetate stream corridors?

The revegetation of streams with native woody plants has many benefits:

Will stream areas revegetate naturally if just left alone?

Yes, but it will take time and the plants that get established will depend on propagation from nearby colonizing species, so variation may be limited. Also the site is liable to be colonized by non-native species, such as Scotch broom or Himalayan blackberry. These can form dense single species stands that prevent a varied ecology of native plants from developing. By revegetating with a variety of native plants, riparian zone vegetation can be jump-started with ecological diversity and companion species can be appropriately grouped. If erosion control is an important factor, then waiting for natural regeneration to take place may be out of the question.

What should be growing on your site?

The best way to determine what native plant species should be planted along a stream is to assess the conditions and note what is growing there already. Unfortunately many riparian areas have been so degraded that little plant variation is present. If the site has been used for pasture, for example, grass or turf might extend down to the stream edge. Or the site might be an artificially re-established stream channel completely devoid of any vegetation. In these cases it is worthwhile to try and find a nearby riparian location with similar attributes that supports a healthy growth of native vegetation.

Bare in mind that many areas have been cleared in the past and what is growing on them now may not constitute a well balanced riparian ecosystem, but merely reflect what got established there first! In other words, some judgment calls are necessary here.

Many species occur in natural companion groupings. A Red Alder might be surrounded with a dense stand of salmonberry, for example, or a Cascara might spring from a clump of hardhack. Such groupings can help defeat non-native invaders such as Reed-canary Grass, or Himalayan Blackberry.

Have a look at what is already growing there, then add in what native species fit local conditions and probably should be growing there but have been removed. Determine which species occur in association.Variation is the key to a healthy riparian ecosystem, so draw up your native species list with diversity in mind.

Succession.

Nature cannot establish a complete riparian ecosystem all at once. The ground may be completely barren of vegetation and the soil nutrient poor and devoid of any organic content. The site might be completely exposed to the full summer sun. These were the conditions that existed in our area as the ice withdrew following the last period of glaciation. In such cases colonizing species, such as Sitka alder and Red alder which are both nitrogen fixing, will probably become established first. They, in turn, slowly create the conditions necessary for the survival of other species. The diverse riparian ecosystems we can observe in nature have taken hundreds of years to become established.

This is an important factor in designing a re-vegetation project. A newly constructed stream channel, a riprapped river bank, or a mine tailings area may well mimic the terrain left by the receding ice. If we have only a poor mineral soil to work with we may need to add organic matter and nutrients. We may have to include a higher number of nitrogen fixing species. Similarly, if the site is exposed we will only be able to plant sun tolerant species, shade loving species will have to wait a few years.

We can never hope to replace in a couple of growing seasons what nature takes hundreds to create - the best we can hope for is to give her a little headstart.

Unnatural Constraints.

Projects will often have to be carried out with certain restrictions laid down by the landowner. A farmer, for example, may refuse to allow trees to be located where they could shade adjacent pasture. Apartment owners may not wish to have their view blocked. Careful plant selection can usually meet these concerns and still provide adequate stream cover. But remember, our objective is to do the best job we can for nature and for fish habitat. Human destruction of habitat is often the cause of a collapse in fish stocks in the first place. Past practices may have appeared adquate at the time so rather than blame, stress the importance of taking affirmative action to protect declining fish stocks, slow streambank erosion, provide wildlife habitat, etc.

One of the main disturbances to riparian plant zones is the encroachment of livestock that browse and trample vegetation and can cause severe bank erosion. There is little point in going to the effort of revegetating a riparian zone without preventing livestock access. You will need landowner cooperation to protect the streambank area from livestock and carry out restoration work on private property.

Designing the planting

Remember that one of our important objectives is to help re-establish a naturally balanced, functioning ecosystem on the site we are attempting to restore. To accomplish this, we need to follow the natural patterns that work in undisturbed sites with similar conditions. See what species are growing on a nearby undisturbed site. Where are they found in relation to the stream? What is their spacing and distribution? What natural plant groupings or associations do you observe? Observations like these are important in designing any revegetation project.

Determine where water levels are during wet periods as extended soil saturation as well as soil type will influence what plants will survive.

Map the revegetation site. Locate any existing shrubs, trees, wet areas, etc. Draw a cross section of the riparian area and break it up into zones of similar conditions. (Low, wet areas, higher banks, transition zones, etc.).

Decide which species are appropriate for each zone. Willow cuttings, for example, would work well along an unrooted cutbank where soil disturbance has to be kept to a minimum.

Use the spacing appropriate for each species. Locate your plantings on your map. Remember that the spacings are only averages. Nature seems to prefer associative groupings, so instead of planting a red alder every two meters, put three close together and intersperse with different species. No matter what you do, you will find that it is very difficult to create a plan that resembles a natural distribution, but you can only try - secure in the knowledge that nature will smooth out the whole thing in the years ahead.

After completing your plan, you will be able to come up with a requirement list for the numbers of different native plant species you will need for the project.

Vegetation for human buffering.

Some native species may be used to buffer sensitive stream areas from human activity. It may, for example, be desirable to limit access to an area of easily eroded stream bank. A heavy growth of Himalayan blackberry is often touted by locals as a sure way of keeping the human predator out of the stream areas. Unfortunately Himalayan blackberry is an introduced weed that once established can force out some native species and completely take over an area. Although unquestionably a great performer at minimizing human access, it generally has rather poor root development and creates areas of bare soil under its dense mat of canes. Devil’s club (Oplopanax horridus), Nootka rose (Rosa nootkana), Black swamp gooseberry (Ribes lacustre), and Black Hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii), are valuable native species that may be used to buffer sensitive areas from human encroachment while contributing to wildlife food resources and helping to create habitat diversity.

Where to get plants

Some plants, such as the willows, regenerate easily from cuttings. Cuttings can usually be gathered free of charge from roadsides and under powerlines where the parent plants are routinely cut back.

Collecting rooted plants from the wild is unethical. Not only is the removal of plants from undisturbed areas extremely destructive, but the survival rate is generally very low. Many rare plant species have been brought to the brink of extinction by unthinking collectors who are not aware that they are individuals among many.

A rare exception is when a site is due to be completely cleared for construction and volunteer labour is available. In such cases, the landowner is often happy to allow plant rescue to take place before the bulldozers move in. Carefully removed plants may be kept alive in capillary beds until required for restoration. Survival rates will be lower than for container grown plants.

The best alternative is to purchase rooted plants from a nursery specializing in the propagation of native plants. The root systems of container grown plants are intact and survival rates will be very high. Nutrients in the potting mix will also support the plants during the initial growout period.

Preparing and planting Willow cuttings.

Cuttings should be from new growth, at least as thick as a pencil, and a foot or more long for direct sticking. At least one or two buds must be above ground. Longer cuttings can be planted deeper for better moisture access. In fact we have found that willow cuttings greater than 3cm in diameter and 2 to 3 meters long will generally take root and leaf out well above reed canary grass and other difficult competitors. Such large cuttings are also extremely useful in bioengineering projects.

It is critical that cuttings are planted the right way up. Its easy to make this mistake when handling large numbers of cuttings so its common practice to do a couple of things to keep them straight: 1) Make the bottom cut square across the whip directly below a bud (node), and the top cut about a cm. above the top bud and sloping upward at a steep angle away from the bud. 2) orient all the cuttings the same way and tie them in bundles for storage.

Cuttings must be handled carefully, kept cool, and moist. Do not expose them to sunlight. Process the whips into cuttings as soon as possible after you get back from the field. Don’t let them dry out in the back of a truck when traveling - maybe keep them covered with some wet sacks.

As soon as the cuttings are bundled, bury them completely in moist sawdust in a cool, shady place. You could also store them in plastic bags and refrigerate them. If you do this, make sure there are a couple of air holes in the bags. The idea here is to retard leaf growth as much as possible before planting out. If the cuttings leaf out before the roots have a chance to develop, they will probably die.

Cuttings should be soaked before planting. Handle carefully to protect any new root growth and always keep cool, moist, and out of the sun and wind. To plant your cuttings, you will need to fabricate a few “dibblers”. These can be welded up from rebar as shown in the diagram.

When planting, hold the dibbler by the top handle and step on the lower bar to push the tool into the ground. Try and estimate how deep you need to make the hole to insert at least half the cutting. Remove the tool and push the cutting into the ground. It should touch the bottom of the hole and still leave one or two buds exposed.

Stamp the soil beside the cutting to tighten up the earth around it. Water in. You may want to wrap the bottom of the cutting with foil or “vole guard” to protect it from rodent attack.

Planting rooted seedlings and larger plants.

General: It is preferable to plant on a rainy or overcast day. If it is sunny and dry, be sure that the roots are not exposed to sunlight and are always kept moist.

Dig holes half again as large in diameter as the root ball and several inches deeper. Backfill with enough loose soil so that the top of the rootball will end up several inches below ground level. Add a handful of bonemeal and mix into the loose soil. If the site is impoverished, you may also consider using a little slow release organic nitrogen source such as Canola meal. Chemical fertilisers should not be used unless there is absolutely no danger of stream contamination.

Place the plant in the hole, disturbing the roots as little as possible. Backfill with soil and water-in thoroughly, use at least one bucket of water for each plant. Prune off any damaged branches.

It is extremely important to create a ‘watering basin’ around the plant. Make sure the plant finishes up in a depression several inches deep. This will allow easy watering and also act to catch ambient moisture. If the ground is slightly sloped make a ridge of soil around the lower side to form your watering basin. When the ground is steeply sloped, create a terrace for each plant as shown in the illustration. Terraces create individual watering basins and prevent the plant’s crown from becoming buried by soil washing downslope.

We recommend mulching around the plants to preserve soil moisture and slow weed competition. Newspapers, cardboard, bark mulch, etc. may be used. Bare in mind that mulch material may be carried away during high water events and wind up in the stream. Inorganic mulches, such as plastic landscape fabrics, do not biodegrade and may eventually have to be removed from the site. (For this reason it is important to refrain from using non-biodegradebale materials anywhere in the riparian zone.) Keep mulch away from the plant stem. Protect the stem from rodents with aluminum foil or “vole guard”. Do not stake the plant unless the planting site is exposed to strong winds, as this can restrict root growth. Mark the plant with a stake and protect it from traffic where necessary.

Container plants:

Remove any of the root mass that has grown out through the holes in the bottom of the container and can not be easily withdrawn when the plant is removed. To remove plants from containers, spread your hand over the soil surface with the stem between your index and middle fingers. Invert the plant. Work the pot off the inverted rootball. Place your other hand on the bottom of the rootball to support it and turn the plant right side up. Disturb the roots as little as possible, although it is important to make sure that no roots are encircling the root mass, as this could lead to eventual strangulation. (If you discover that the plant is rootbound in this way, then you will need to comb out the outside of the root mass.) Place the plant in the hole, backfill, and firm into place.

Ball and burlap plants:

Always carry the balled plants by cradling the root ball with one or both hands. Do not use the trunk as a handle. Handle carefully and do not drop, as the root ball could shatter and expose the roots. Balled plants can be left unplanted for several weeks, provided the soil ball is kept moist and the plants are kept upright.

We recommend removing the burlap covering completely from the root ball, if it can be done without the rootball disintegrating. To do this, place the plant in the hole on top of the soil and bonemeal mixture, cut the strings, and have someone gently lift the root ball with both hands while another person slides out the sacking.

If the surrounding soil is much lighter than the soil in the rootball, the rootball could dry out after planting. To help prevent this, add one shovelful of ground bark mulch to three shovelfuls of your backfill soil. Water penetration into the rootball can also be helped by carefully penetrating the ball in several places with a sharp stick about 1cm thick. Keep the surrounding soil moist to allow quick root penetration from the rootball. Water in thoroughly during the planting process as outlined above.

Bare-root plants:

Some nursery grown plants may be purchased as bare-root stock. Salvaged or ‘rescued’ plants may also generally be considered to be bare-root unless they have been ball and burlapped correctly. Bare-root plants must be kept cool and moist. Plant them as soon as possible. Always make sure the roots are kept covered in moist bark mulch or peat moss during transportation and storage. Do not expose the roots to sunlight. Carry them to their planting site in buckets filled with wet mulch and only remove the plant just before placing it in the hole.

The planting hole should be constructed so as to accommodate the roots of a bare-root plant. If the roots are spreading, you should mound the bonemeal soil mixture in the bottom of the hole so the roots will slope down and out. Water in well.

Aftercare

During the first year, plant survival can be enhanced by watering thoroughly as required during the dry period. Do not rely on early fall rain to penetrate down to the developing root systems.

If plant survival is very poor, replanting in future years may be necessary.
 

Deer and animal browse

Deer and other animals such as elk and rabbits can cause tremendous damage to newly planted areas.  There are many methods to prevent browse but these are often expensive and labour intensive.  Browse control should be factored in the project cost and labour should be made available to apply browse protection and monitor its effectivness.  For riparian plants, forestry tree guards will ususally not fit so a spray-on repellant is required.  Plantskydd® is an environmentally safe product that is applied before browse begins in spring or fall.  The 'active'  ingredient is dried blood.  It is non-toxic and not harmful to animals. Plantskydd® lasts up to six months over winter on dormant plants and up to four months during the active growing season.  The product should be applied to dry plants and allowed to dry for 24 hours before being hit by rainfall. See www.Plantskydd.com for more information and mixing instructions.

Trees and shrubs for stream revegetation.

A large variety of native plant species are found along our stream corridors. Some of these will require fairly specific conditions that might not be found at your particular site. Others may be used for definite purposes, such as rapid bank stabilization, buffering sensitive areas from human traffic, or the rapid creation of stream cover. Remember that biological diversity is the key to a healthy ecosystem. Try and select species for your project that provide a mix of different wildlife foods, shrub and tree heights, plant forms, root structures and depths, etc.

Also try and find native plants that have been propagated from parent stock located as close to your site as possible. Natural genetic variation within a species may compromise survivability if the parent stock is drawn from a significantly different ecosystem.
 

Here are some valuable native trees and woody shrubs commonly found in our local riparian zones on Vancouver Island:

See the Plant Selection Guide

Coniferous trees:

Douglas-firPseudotsuga menziesii - To 70 meters. Full sun to part shade. Prefers drier sites. An early succession species. Giant root structures provide stability in eroding areas and are valuable in creating complex fish habitat. Large evergreens are important for wildlife, and are sources of large woody debris.

Sitka SprucePicea sitchensis - To 70 meters. Full sun to full shade. Well adapted to wet streamside conditions.

Western HemlockTsuga heterophylla - To 60 meters. Full sun to full shade. Moist to wet sites. A climax forest species.

Western Redcedar Thuja plicata - To 60 meters. Full sun to full shade. Usually in moist to wet soils. Grows best on seepage or alluvial sites, but also occurs in drier habitats. A common streamside large evergreen.

Deciduous trees:

Red Alder Alnus rubra - 13 to 25 meters. Full sun to partial shade. Tolerates drought, periods of flooding, or brackish soils. Ample to moderate water requirements. Thrives on a range of soils from wet clays to gravel. Red alder is an important fast growing restoration species. It’s nitrogen fixing and will help enrich impoverished soils. Plant well back of the stream edge to prevent blowdowns from opening the bank.

Bigleaf MapleAcer macrophyllum - 25 to 30 meters. Prefers full sun. Requires ample to moderate water. Grows on free draining soils. A fast growing species important for restoration in our area. Its massive limbs and spreading habit provide good upper level stream cover in exposed locations. Can also form dense stands of tall straight trees. An excellent producer of large woody debris and leaf biomass.

Douglas MapleAcer glabrum - Shrub or small tree to 10 meters high. Prefers sunny habitats and well drained moist soils. Occurs sporadically in our area along streambanks. A mixture of deep and lateral roots provide good anchorage and bank stabilization benefits.

Black CottonwoodPopulus trichocarpa - 50 to 65 meters. Prefers full sun and ample water. Tolerates flooding and a variety of soils. Black cottonwood is a tall, straight-trunked, extremely fast-growing tree that thrives in wet habitats. Shallow rooted and an excellent producer of large woody debris. Its rapid growth makes it a valuable restoration species where shading must be quickly established.

Trembling AspenPopulus tremuloides - 25 to 30 meters. Prefers full sun and ample to moderate water. Does well on sandy or gravely soils. Often spreads by producing underground suckers that may form dense clonal groves of trees. Once established, its extended root structure and suckering ability enable aspen to quickly re-establish after beaver devastation. Occurs sporadically in groves along eastern Vancouver Island.

CascaraRhamnus purshiana - Small tree to 10 or 12 meters. Prefers sun to partial shade. Dry to wet sites. Small fruits are a valuable food source for birds. The bark is a powerful laxative which deters beavers, making this a valuable tree for riparian plantings on V. Island.

Bitter Cherry Prunus emerginata - 2 to 15 meters. Full sun to partial shade. Loamy, sandy, or gravely soils, and drier to moist conditions. Common along streams on Vancouver Island. The little red cherries are bitter to humans, but a good food source for birds.

Pacific CrabappleMalus fusca - 2 to 12 meters. Full sun to partial shade. Usually grows on deep moist to wet acid soils in woods, swamps, and around the edges of standing or flowing water, and along the shoreline. Can form dense thickets and is a valuable wildlife species for food and refuge - almost always found in our local riparian zones.

Black HawthornCrataegus douglasii - Large shrub or small tree to 10 meters. Full sun to partial shade. Ample to moderate water. Occurs frequently on Vancouver Island usually in moist, open places, streamside areas, forest edges, and thickets. Small black fruits are a valuable food source for wildlife and dense foliage provides refuge. Extremely sharp spines up to three centimeters long have a human buffering value. Black Hawthorn is a valuable restoration species for stream areas because it is deep rooted and highly resistant to beaver damage.

Sitka Mountain-ashSorbus sitchensis - 1 to 4 meters. Sun. Usually along forest edges, stream banks, or open woods. Although more common at higher elevations, a few examples are usually found in our local riparian zones. Berries are a valuable food source for wildlife.

Oregon AshFraxinus latifolia - To 20 meters. This is a very rare streambank species on Vancouver Island that might be used to advantage in helping to create biodiversity. A few occur naturally in the Alberni Valley.

The Willows

Willows may be the most common trees used for stream revegetation and other restoration work. There are many species and sub-species of willow, from dwarf shrubs to larger trees. Many species are easily established from cuttings without requiring rooting hormone. They grow rapidly and have excellent soil-binding properties. They are valuable for wildlife browse and often overhang water providing leaf material and insects. Many willows will tolerate seasonal flooding. Willows are widely used in such bio-engineering projects as living culverts, wattle fencing to stabilize steep eroding slopes, and living fences growing into and protecting streambanks. Here are some of the species most often used in our area.

Pacific WillowSalix lucida, also known as S. lasiandra To about 12 meters. Full sun to partial shade. A small tree with one or more leaning crooked trunks. Often found along river banks, floodplains, streams, wet meadows. May be standing in shallow water. A valuable restoration species easily propagated by direct sticking of cuttings. Rapidly developing root systems act to bind exposed soils.

Scouler’s WillowSalix scouleriana - 2 to 12 meters. Full sun to partial shade. An upright large shrub or small tree with a straight trunk and high foliage. Streamside areas, clearings, forest edges. Establishes easily with direct sticking of cuttings. Used for bio-engineering and slope stabilization. A valuable restoration species in our area.

Sitka WillowSalix sitchensis - 1 to 8 meters. Full sun to partial shade. Large tree-like shrub with an open, erect form. Streamside thickets, wetland margins, forest edges, wet openings, clearings. Establishes easily from cuttings. A valuable restoration species in our area.

Hooker’s WillowSalix hookeriana - To 6 meters. Full sun to partial shade. Sprawling shrub or cluster of trunks with dense foliage and a rounded crown. Wet places, often on the edge of standing water. A useful restoration species.

Woody shrubs:

Oceanspray Holodiscus discolor - To 4 meters. Full sun to partial shade. Erect shrub with several arching stems. Dry to moist open sites. Common in our area and very useful for drier sites.

Red ElderberrySambucus racemosa - To 6 meters. Full sun to full shade. A fast growing erect shrub with several main arched and a rapidly developing root system. Stream banks, swampy thickets, moist clearings. This plant provides excellent food and cover for birds and mammals. An excellent riparian restoration species in our area.

Red-osier DogwoodCornus stolonifera also known as C. sericea 1 to 6 meters. Full sun to partial shade. A freely spreading shrub with many stems. Moist soil, streamside thickets, swamps. Also open sites and disturbed areas. A good wildlife species. Excellent for erosion control along streambanks and seepage areas. Also a beautiful landscape species with bright red stems, white berries, and fall colour.

SalalGaultheria shallon - To 5 meters. Full sun to partial shade. A creeping to erect shrub with hairy, branched stems. Valuable for wildlife.

Red HuckleberryVaccinium parvifolium - To 4 meters. Prefers partial shade. Huckleberries and blueberries provide excellent food and cover for wildlife and are often a valuable component of riparian ecosystems.

Black Twinberry Lonicera involucrata - .5 to 3 meters. Prefers sun. Rapidly growing erect shrub. Moist forest, clearings, streamside habitats, swamps and thickets. Rapidly developing root system. Provides excellent wildlife forage and cover. A valuable riparian restoration species in our area.

Common SnowberrySymphoricarpos albus - .5 to 2 meters. Full sun to partial shade. Dry to moist, drought tolerant. Small erect twiggy rhizomatous shrub. Rapidly spreading root system has excellent soil-binding characteristics.

SaskatoonAmelanchier alnifolia - 1 to 5 meters. Full sun to partial shade. Shrub to small scraggly tree. Dry to moist well drained soils. Open sites, roadsides. A valuable wildlife species. Deep root systems have good stabilization value. Drought tolerant.

Indian PlumOemleria cerasiformis - 1.5 to 5 meters. Shrub or small tree. One of the first shrubs to flower in spring in the southern part of Vancouver Island. Full sun to partial shade. Dry to moist. Open woods and streambanks. A valuable riparian component south of Ladysmith on Vancouver Island. Can spread by underground suckers. Important for wildlife.

Pacific Ninebark Physocarpus capitatus - To 4 meters. Full sun to full shade. Erect to spreading, arching shrub. Streamside thickets, wet usually open places, edges of lakes and streams. Root system is excellent for stabilizing stream banks. A common riparian species in our area. Extremely valuable for streamside restoration.

Nootka RoseRosa nutkana - To 3 meters. Full sun to partial shade. Open habitats, shorelines, streamside areas, roadsides. Spread by underground suckers to form thickets. Good cover for wildlife. Good soil-binding root systems. Human buffering qualities. A good restoration species in our area.

SalmonberryRubus spectabilis - To 4 meters. Full sun to full shade. Branching stems form dense thickets. Aggressive rhizome system. Moist to wet soils, stream banks, swamps. A good primary colonizer of wet, swampy areas. Spreads rapidly. Salmonberry is a valuable riparian species in our region.

Thimbleberry Rubus parviflorus - .5 to 3 meters. Full sun to light shade. Erect, unarmed; forms dense thickets through an extensive network of rhizomes. Open sites, roadsides, exposed stream areas. Invasive habit is useful for stabilizing drier slopes and stream banks.

Hardhack Spirea douglasii - To 2 meters. Full sun to partial shade. Erect, leggy, much-branched shrub; forms dense thickets. Streambanks, swamps, fens, lake margins, and damp meadows. Provides excellent wildlife cover. Easily survives competition from grasses. Dense thickets have human buffering capability. A valuable riparian restoration species.

Devil’s ClubOplopanax horridus - 1 to 3 meters. Erect to sprawling stems. Shade. Moist forests, wet to well-drained seepage sites. Beautiful plant with human buffering capabilities.

Black Swamp GooseberryRibes lacustre - .5 to 2 meters. Part shade to full shade. Moist woods and streambanks to drier forested slopes. Excellent wildlife species with human buffering capabilities.

Stink CurrantRibes bracteosum To 3 meters. Part shade to full shade. Moist to wet places. A valuable wildlife riparian species. Arching branches and large leaves provide good cover.

Sitka AlderAlnus sitchensis also known as A. sinuata - 1 to 5 meters. Coarse shrub or small tree. Full sun to part shade. Moist sites along streams, wet meadows, recently de-glaciated areas. Nitrogen fixing. A pioneer species able to naturally colonize bare areas, low nutrient soils, and disturbed sites. High flood and snow resistance. Usually sub-alpine but also found at lower elevations. Extremely valuable for restoration work.
 

References:

Pojar, Jim and Andy MacKinnon, eds., 1994, Plants of Coastal British Columbia, Victoria: British Columbia Forest Service; Vancouver, Lone Pine Publishing.

Brayshaw, T. Christopher, 1996, Trees and Shrubs of British Columbia, Victoria: Royal British Columbia Museum; Vancouver, UBC Press.

Brayshaw, T. Christopher, 1996, Catkin-Bearing Plants of British Columbia, Victoria: Royal British Columbia Museum.

Slaney, P.A., and D. Zaldokas, 1997, Fish Habitat Rehabilitation Procedures, Watershed Restoration Technical Circular No. 9, Vancouver: Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks.

Taccogna, G., and K. Munro, eds., 1995, The Streamkeepers Handbook: a Practical Guide to Stream and Wetland Care, Vancouver: Salmon Enhancement Program, Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans.

Kruckeberg, Arthur R., 1982, Gardening with Native Plants, Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Lyons, C.P., and Bill Merilees, 1995, Trees, Shrubs & Flowers to Know in British Columbia & Washington, Vancouver: Lone Pine Press.

Merchant, Chris and Jennifer Sherlock, 1984, A guide to Selection and Propagation of some Native Woody Species for Land Rehabilitation in British Columbia, Victoria: Ministry of Forests.

Porter, Barbara and Richard, 1997, Streamside Native Plants, Courtenay, British Columbia

Voss, Cheryl, A guide to stream corridor revegetation in Western Washington, Olympia: Thurston Conservation District.
 
 
 

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